Extracorporeal life support provides support to failing lungs, a failing heart, or both, through a gas exchange circuit outside the body. ECLS, the overarching term, is delivered in 2 modes:
1. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), which provides sufficient blood flow rates for respiratory gas exchange (venovenous ECMO) and circulatory support (venoarterial ECMO), 2. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R), which removes carbon dioxide (CO2) using comparatively lower blood flow rates but cannot provide substantial oxygenation.
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